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[经验] 关于固定资产是否可以转换为存货的讨论

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发表于 2020-3-24 21:16:10 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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前几天,朋友的项目有个问题来问我,觉得很有意思,分享一下。

       客户能不能将固定资产转为存货?

       这个问题准则中是没有明确规定的,chenyiwei在瑞华汇编2010-2019中有讨论过这个问题,在问题1-1-52:

企业将原先自用或者对外出租的固定资产改变持有意图,不再继续用于生产商品、提供劳务、出租或经营管理的用途,而是拟将其出售,此时应按照《企业会计准则第4号——固定资产》关于固定资产处置的相关规定进行处理。对于已经停止使用但尚未对外处置的固定资产,如果符合《企业会计准则第42号——持有待售的非流动资产、处置组和终止经营》第六条规定的认定为“持有待售资产”的条件的(根据类似交易中出售此类资产或处置组的惯例,在当前状况下即可立即出售;出售极可能发生,即企业已经就一项出售计划作出决议且获得确定的购买承诺,预计出售将在一年内完成。有关规定要求企业相关权力机构或者监管部门批准后方可出售的,应当已经获得批准),可以作为持有待售资产进行确认、计量和列报,在资产负债表中将其列报为一项流动资产,但不能仅仅因为用途的改变而将其转为存货核算。

《企业会计准则第14号——收入》及其应用指南的规定:“收入是指企业在日常活动中形成的、会导致所有者权益增加的、与所有者投入资本无关的经济利益的总流入。其中的‘日常活动’是指企业为完成其经营目标所从事的经常性活动以及与之相关的活动。”(2006年收入准则和2017年修订后的收入准则对收入的定义是一致的)。2008年的收入准则应用指南特别指出:“企业处置固定资产、无形资产等活动,不是企业为完成其经营目标所从事的经常性活动,也不属于与经常性活动相关的活动,由此产生的经济利益的总流入不构成收入,应当确认为营业外收入”。(财会[2017]30号文改为“资产处置收益”。)2018年修订后的收入准则应用指南虽未直接明确处置固定资产不属于收入,但该指南中明确提及“企业处置固定资产、无形资产等,在确定处置时点以及计量处置损益时,按照本准则的有关规定进行处理。”即,在考虑终止确认固定资产时点、确定固定资产处置对价时按照收入准则执行,其他处理仍按照固定资产准则的规定执行,间接表达出固定资产处置的列报不属于收入。根据上述规定,企业处置固定资产的收益(即使企业内部制度明确规定在固定资产使用一定年限后应对其进行强制清理)不应确认为营业收入,而是应当将处置净损益作为一项利得,确认为资产处置收益。

上述结论并不会因为企业营业执照上记载的经营范围是否包括“船舶贸易”(情形2)而有所不同。如果公司购入一条船舶时,一开始就明确其持有意图是用于出售而不是自用,则可以将该船舶确认为自身的存货,出售时确认“营业收入——贸易收入”和结转相应营业成本;但对于购入时的初始意图是用于生产商品、提供劳务、出租或经营管理用途的船舶,应确认为固定资产,后续用于出售时不再转为存货。另外,对于情形1来说,可作为类比的情况是《企业会计准则讲解(2010)》第60页中对投资性房地产转为存货应满足的条件的规定:“房地产开发企业将用于经营租出的房地产重新开发用于对外销售的,从投资性房地产转换为存货。这种情况下,转换日为租赁期届满、企业董事会或类似机构作出书面决议明确表明将其重新开发用于对外销售的日期。”

从上述规定可知,企业将投资性房地产转为存货,应满足的一个基本条件是“将用于经营租出的房地产重新开发用于对外销售”,即在用于对外销售前必须经过一个重新开发过程,而不能直接以收回时的现状对外出售。如果没有经过重新开发过程而直接以现状对外出售的,则属于投资性房地产的处置。

EY Atlas中的相关问题描述:
IAS 16.6- 1 - Classification of items as inventory or property, plant, and equipment when minimum levels are maintained.

Links to standards applicable for annual periods beginning on 1 January 2019: IAS 16.6-1 and IAS 2.6-1 - Classification of items as inventory or property, plant, and equipment when minimum levels are maintained

Links to standards issued as of 1 January 2019: IAS 16.6-1 and IAS 2.6-1 - Classification of items as inventory or property, plant, and equipment when minimum levels are maintained

Issue

Are there circumstances under which an item of inventory must/may be accounted for as an item of property, plant and equipment (PP&E)?

Fact Pattern

Entities acquire items of inventory on a continuing basis, either for sale in the ordinary course of business or to be consumed in a production process or when rendering services. So there will always be a core stock of inventory. This does not in itself turn inventory into an item of PP&E, since at an individual item level, each item will be consumed in one operating cycle. However, there may be cases where it is difficult to judge whether an item is part of inventory or is an item of PP&E. Consider the following examples:

  • Entity A acquires the right to use an underground cave (a former salt mine) for gas storage purposes for a period of 50 years. The cave is filled with gas, but a substantial part (25%) of that gas will only be used to keep the cave under pressure in order to be able to get gas out of the cave. It is not possible to distinguish the gas that will be used to keep the cave under pressure and the rest of the gas. Gas will be turned around on a continuing basis. Still, it is possible to measure the part of the gas that will not recoupable from the cave for selling purposes.

  • Entity B operates a crude oil refining plant. In order for the refining process to take place, the plant must contain a certain minimum quantity of oil. This can only be taken out once the plant is abandoned and would then be polluted to such an extent that its value is significantly reduced (it can only be sold as sludge).

  • Entity C sells gas and has at any one time a certain quantity of gas in its gas distribution network.


Conclusion

If an item of inventory is not held for sale or consumed in a production process or during the process of rendering services, but is necessary to operate or benefit from an asset during more than one operating cycle and it cannot be recouped through sale (or is significantly impaired after it has been used to operate the asset or benefit from that asset), this item of inventory is accounted for as an item of PP&E. This applies even if the part of inventory that is an item of PP&E cannot physically be separated from the rest of inventories.

  • The total volume of gas must be virtually split into (i) gas held for sale and (ii) gas held to keep the cave under pressure. The former must be accounted for under IAS 2 Inventories. The latter must be accounted for under IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and depreciated over the period the cave is expected to be used.

  • The part of the crude that is necessary to operate (in technical terms) the plant and cannot be recouped (or can be recouped but would then be significantly impaired as sludge), even when the plant is abandoned, should be considered as an item of PP&E and amortised over the life of the plant.

  • The gas in the pipeline is not necessary to operate the pipeline. It is held for sale or to be consumed in the production process or process of rendering services. Therefore this gas is accounted for as inventory.


Reasons for conclusion

The arguments for this conclusion are that:

  • (a)

    The items do not meet the definition of inventories

  • (b)

    Although it is not possible to identify the molecules in each of the two categories, there is no reason why one could not distinguish assets with a different use, and account for them differently, even if they are of the same nature. IAS 2 does cater for it in paragraph 25 when discussing different cost formulas.

  • (c)

    The items are necessary to bring another item of PP&E to the condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. This meets the definition of the costs of PP&E in IAS 16.16(b) upon initial recognition of an item of PP&E

  • (d)

    Recognising these items as inventories would lead to an immediate loss because these items cannot be sold or consumed in a production process or during the process of rendering services. This does not properly reflect the fact that the items are necessary to operate another asset over more than one operating cycle.


Although IAS 2 and IAS 16 are starting from a historical cost basis, the accounting is quite different because under IAS 2 changes in prices of inventory will affect income, whereas under IAS 16 they would not. The same applies if entity A would use the scope exclusion in IAS 2.3 and marks these inventories to market (fair value less costs to sell) or to net realisable value through income.

References

IAS 2 Inventories


"6. Definitions

Inventories are assets:

  • (a)

    held for sale in the ordinary course of business;

  • (b)

    in the process of production for such sale; or

  • (c)

    in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services."



IAS 16 Property Plant and Equipment


"6.  Definitions

Property, plant and equipment are tangible items that:

  • (a)

    are held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, for rental to others, or for administrative purposes; and

  • (b)

    are expected to be used during more than one period."


"16. The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises:

  • (a)

    ….

  • (b)

    any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management."



Date of approval by IFRS PC: December 2004

IAS 16 property, plant and equipment

68A

However, an entity that, in the course of its ordinary activities, routinely sells items of property, plant and equipment that it has held for rental to others shall transfer such assets to inventories at their carrying amount when they cease to be rented and become held for sale. The proceeds from the sale of such assets shall be recognised as revenue in accordance with IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers. IFRS 5 does not apply when assets that are held for sale in the ordinary course of business are transferred to inventories.

[Refer: Basis for Conclusions paragraphs BC35A–BC35D and BC35F]

Assets held for rental to others 4BC35A

The Board identified that, in some industries, entities are in the business of renting and subsequently selling the same assets.

BC35B

The Board noted that the Standard prohibits classification as revenue of gains arising from derecognition of items of property, plant and equipment. The Board also noted that paragraph BC35 states the reason for this is ‘users of financial statements would consider these gains and the proceeds from an entity’s sale of goods in the course of its ordinary activities differently in their evaluation of an entity’s past results and their projections of future cash flows.’

BC35C

Consistently with that reason, the Board concluded that entities whose ordinary activities include renting and subsequently selling the same assets should recognise revenue from both renting and selling the assets. In the Board’s view, the presentation of gross selling revenue, rather than a net gain or loss on the sale of the assets, would better reflect the ordinary activities of such entities.

BC35D

The Board concluded that the disclosure requirements of IAS 16, IAS 2 and IAS 18 5 would lead an entity to disclose relevant information for users.

BC35E

The Board also concluded that paragraph 14 of IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows should be amended to present within operating activities cash payments to manufacture or acquire such assets and cash receipts from rents and sales of such assets.

BC35F

The Board discussed the comments received in response to its exposure draft of proposed Improvements to International Financial Reporting Standardspublished in 2007 and noted that a few respondents would prefer the issue to be included in one of the Board’s major projects such as the revenue recognition project or the financial statement presentation project. However, the Board noted that the proposed amendment would improve financial statement presentation before those projects could be completed and decided to add paragraph 68A as previously exposed. A few respondents raised the concern that the term ‘held for sale’ in the amendment could be confused with the notion of held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations. Consequently, the Board clarified in the amendment that IFRS 5 should not be applied in those circumstances.


从IAS 16和BC的描述来看,不禁止从固定资产转为存货,但是有一个前提就是固定资产的管理模式和获取现金流的方式发生变化。此种转换下的销售不适用IFRS5的持有待售规定,而划分为ifrs15的收入。还有另外一个前提就是,销售原固定资产的业务是公司本身的日常经营范围。

结合atlas中issue的描述看,此种转换划分是合理的,因为作为存货和作为固定资产影响损益和减值的理念是不同的,固定资产的减值是基于PPE本身未来产生现金流现值,存货的减值基础为本身的可变现净值。

另外陈老师说的投资性房地产“重新开发”这个要求,在ifrs中没找到对应规定,个人认为不是准则差异,而是准则翻译时候加上去的,不太应该作为限制条件。

但是,依然不建议客户做此类重分类,会很大程度上引起监管机构和报表使用者的注意,300001特锐德在2017年将4亿PPE转为存货,被证监会下了询问函,反馈意见的回复基本和上面的理解类似,供参考:

问询问题3:报告期内,你公司将拥有的新能源汽车的经营模式从租赁变为出售,因此将其从固定资产转为存货进行列报,增加存货41,321万元。请补充说明:(1)从固定资产转为存货进行列报的时间及相关会计处理;(2)是否属于会计政策变更,若是,是否履行相应审议程序及信息披露义务;(3)新能源汽车截至目前对外销售情况。
回复:

(1)该批车辆由固定资产转为存货主要原因为公司战略调整,将资产持有目的由运营转为销售。2017年特来电公司新能源汽车3650辆由固定资产转为存货的价值是41,321万元。这些车辆于2016年12月采买入账作为固定资产核算,车辆始终处于新车状态并未投入运营,随着2017年公司经营战略的调整,该批新能源汽车在2017年5月份与7月份按照原值转为存货。
(2)该批车辆由固定资产转为存货主要原因为公司经营策略调整,对该批车辆的用途进行了变更。公司的经营范围既包括新能源汽车的租赁业务也包括销售业务,且该两项业务一直存续。该批车辆最初购置的时候计划用于租赁业务,但是随着市场的变化,公司及时进行了经营策略的调整,认为该批车辆用于销售更为合适,因此将该批车辆从固定资产转为存货,这属于公司会计科目的调整并非会计政策变更。

(3)该批车辆总计3650台,现已销售684台,因山西省对新能源行业的大力支持,当地新能源车销售市场走势较好,同时太原推行新能源出租车业务也进一步带动了新能源车的零售业务拓展,目前库存车辆在市场的零售价仍可保持近万元的单台毛利。同时目前已经有政府投资集团、网约车运营企业、运输企业有大额订单采购意向。


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发表于 2020-3-25 05:18:35 | 显示全部楼层
类似案例在《瑞华研究2010~2019汇编》中也有:“问题1-1-34(按技术要求需保持的商品最低结存量的核算)”、“问题1-3-11(存货可变现净值的确定方法)”。其结论和你提到的EY Q&A一致。

另外投资性房地产转为存货必须经过“重新开发”,在IFRS中是有原文依据的:IAS 40.58
Paragraph 57(b) requires an entity to transfer a property from investment property to inventories when, and only when, there is a change in use, evidenced by commencement of development with a view to sale. When an entity decides to dispose of an investment property without development, it continues to treat the property as an investment property until it is derecognised (eliminated from the statement of financial position) and does not treat it as inventory. Similarly, if an entity begins to redevelop an existing investment property for continued future use as investment property, the property remains an investment property and is not reclassified as owner-occupied property during the redevelopment.

所以在这个问题上,中国企业会计准则和IFRS应无差异,均对固定资产转为存货有严格限制。
 楼主| 发表于 2020-3-25 15:30:22 | 显示全部楼层
chenyiwei 发表于 2020-3-25 05:18
类似案例在《瑞华研究2010~2019汇编》中也有:“问题1-1-34(按技术要求需保持的商品最低结存量的核算)” ...

好的,是我理解的有点偏差,学习了。
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