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[求助] 无本金交割远期交易如何进行核算

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发表于 2015-3-12 10:36:57 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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A公司拟收购境外公司股权,双方于2015年2月10日签订协议,股权收购价款为18000外币A,合同约定收购价款在6月26日支付并进行交割;3月10日A公司与银行签订无本金交割远期交易协议,约定A公司在7月2日卖出8200外币B并以固定汇率x购入18000外币A。假设7月2日双方进行无本金交割,A公司获取无本金远期外汇交易利得y。
问题:(1)该无本金远期外汇交易如何进行会计处理,是否可以认定为公允价值套期并对长期股权投资成本进行调整;(2)套期损益如何计算,谢谢!
发表于 2015-3-12 17:58:20 | 显示全部楼层
套期会计的运用门槛较高且较为复杂,一般不建议使用,可直接将无本金交割作为一项一般性的衍生工具,作为以公允价值计量且其变动计入当期损益的金融资产核算。
发表于 2015-3-13 10:25:15 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 zengfengxia 于 2015-3-13 17:16 编辑

1、CAS37抵销列报:企业在境内存人民币存款,然后在境外获取等额的外币借款,同时签订远期购汇合约以锁定外币借款的汇率,整个交易一揽子达成,报表上会出现人民币定期存款、外币借款和衍生工具3项金融工具,是否能抵消列报?
CAS37第28条里面的两个条件在这个案例中应该怎么考虑?
交易一揽子达成,而且有理由相信企业与银行会以净额结算或同时变现该金融资产和清偿该金融负债,法定权利方面如果企业与银行之间已经签订了合法的抵消条款,是不是可以把短期借款和人民币存款抵消列报?
第33条里面的第一款,合成工具不得抵消列报是基于什么考虑,与第28条的两个条件如何衔接?
2、CAS37适用范围:
CAS37准则及应用指南中提及因职工薪酬计划形成的企业义务复核金融工具的定义,但其核算和列报有CAS9规范,职工薪酬相关义务的列报不适用CAS37准则。在依据准则第67条披露非衍生金融负债的到期期限时,是否可以据此无需考虑应付职工薪酬的负债?

 楼主| 发表于 2015-3-13 13:09:42 | 显示全部楼层
chenyiwei 发表于 2015-3-12 17:58
套期会计的运用门槛较高且较为复杂,一般不建议使用,可直接将无本金交割作为一项一般性的衍生工具,作为以 ...

谢谢陈版!
发表于 2015-3-13 19:10:43 | 显示全部楼层
zengfengxia 发表于 2015-3-13 10:25
1、CAS37抵销列报:企业在境内存人民币存款,然后在境外获取等额的外币借款,同时签订远期购汇合约以锁定外 ...

关于合成工具不得抵销列报的原因,可参考EY的《International GAAP 2014》中的以下解释:

A derivative that is attached to a financial instrument, but is contractually transferable independently of that instrument, or has a different counterparty from that instrument, is not an embedded derivative, but a separate financial instrument. [IAS 39.10, IFRS 9.4.3.1]. This is also the case where a synthetic instrument is created by using derivatives to 'alter' the nature of a non-derivative instrument, as illustrated in the following example:
Example 42.20: Investment in synthetic fixed-rate debt
Company A acquires a five year floating rate debt instrument issued by Company B. At the same time, it enters into a five year pay-variable, receive-fixed interest rate swap with Bank C. A considers the combination of the two instruments to be a synthetic fixed rate bond and, since it has the positive intent and ability to hold them to maturity, wants to classify them as a held-to-maturity investment (see Chapter 44 at 3).
Embedded derivatives are terms and conditions that are included in non-derivative host contracts and it is generally inappropriate to treat two or more separate financial instruments as a single combined, or synthetic, instrument. Each of the financial instruments has its own terms and conditions and may be transferred or settled separately. Therefore, the debt instrument and the swap must be classified separately.[IAS 39.C.6, IFRS 9.C.6].
It is asserted that these transactions differ from those discussed at 3.2 above because those had no substance apart from the resulting interest rate swap. [IAS 39.C.6, IFRS 9.C.6]. Although some might argue that the substance of the two transactions above is the resulting synthetic fixed rate debt instrument, this interpretation is clearly not allowed under the standard.
Interestingly, the guidance does not address a much more common situation whereby a company both borrows from, and transacts a related derivative with, the same counterparty – typically the borrowing will be floating rate and the derivative a perfectly matched pay-fixed, receive-floating interest rate swap. Such transactions can offer cheaper funding than conventional fixed rate borrowings (in a perfect market this should not be true, but anecdotal evidence suggests it often is).
In fact the subject of linking transactions for accounting purposes is a difficult one, especially in the context of financial instruments. The IASB's Conceptual Framework specifies that transactions should be reported in accordance with their substance and economic reality and not merely their legal form [Framework.4.6] and linking transactions can be seen as dealing with the question of how to interpret this principle.
IAS 32 and IAS 39 (IFRS 9) deal with the subject in a piecemeal way. For example, in addition to the synthetic instrument illustration above:
  ·   two or more non-derivative contracts that are, 'in substance', no more than a single derivative are treated as a single derivative (see 3.2 above);
  ·   derivatives that are 'attached' to a non-derivative financial instrument may sometimes be regarded as part of a single combined instrument (see 4 above);
  ·   in classifying an instrument in consolidated financial statements as equity or a financial liability, all terms and conditions agreed between members of the group and holders of the instrument are considered (see Chapter 43 at 4.8); and
  ·   determining the appropriate accounting treatment for a transaction that involves the transfer of some or all rights associated with financial assets without the sale of the assets themselves inevitably involves linking separate contracts to assess whether the transaction results in derecognition of the assets. For example, there might be one contract defining the continued ownership of the asset and another obliging the owner to transfer the rights associated with the asset to a third party (see Chapter 47 at 3 to 5).

The Interpretations Committee first considered the subject of linkage in 2002 and has, in the past, made certain recommendations to the IASB. In fact, the requirement to take account of linked terms when classifying instruments as debt or equity in consolidated financial statements was introduced into IAS 32 in December 2003 following the Interpretations Committee's deliberations. In spite of agreeing proposed indicators for when transactions should be linked, and proposed guidance on accounting for linked transactions, these have never been published as an interpretation or standard.42
Consequently, in considering the borrowing and swap situation above, we are left principally with the guidance in IAS 39 (IFRS 9). It is likely that the swap and the loan have their own terms and conditions and may be transferred or settled independently of each other. Therefore, the principles in Example 42.20 above would suggest separate accounting for the two instruments. Applying the guidance at 3.2 above (aggregating non-derivative transactions and treating them as a derivative) would also suggest separate accounting in most cases. Even though the instruments are transacted with the same counterparty, there will normally be a substantive business purpose for transacting the instruments separately, namely the fact that it leads to cheaper funding.
It seems clear that in situations involving two separate legal contracts, the IASB has set the bar for regarding transactions as linked very high and, in most cases, the two instruments will be regarded as separate for accounting purposes. However, in rare situations the linkage between those contracts (normally itself contractual) may be such that for accounting purposes those contracts cannot be regarded as existing independently of each other.

抵销列报的一个条件是拥有当前可执行的抵销法定权利,且有意愿行使该权利。对很多合成工具而言,其同时结算或抵销都只能发生在预定的到期日,不能在目前随时行使。

应付职工薪酬相关负债也属于金融工具,应纳入“金融工具相关风险”的披露范围内。
发表于 2018-4-16 21:08:38 | 显示全部楼层
外汇管理局发文,今年3月1日起,企业可以参与人民币外汇的掉期业务,我公司,这个月就做了一笔,现在在为做账的事发愁,请版主指教,我是会计新手,还望版主能详尽的解释下,感激不尽,感激不尽

货币掉期步骤:
即期(即期汇率6.49):客户将人民币6490万给银行,银行给客户1000万美元
客户付我行美元年利率4.5%
我行付客户人民币年利率:3.05%
掉期结束时还本付息
远期:客户给银行美元1000万,并支付利息45万美元,银行给客户6490万人民币,并支付利息197.95万人民币。
假设当日的即期汇率为6.42.
另公司在掉期申请日,就做了一笔远期购汇,远期购汇汇率为6.4,金额1045万美元。
chenyiwei回复
该类金融产品实际上是以下三者的组合:(1)人民币定期存款;(2)外币借款;(3)远期外汇合约。

回复 chenyiwei 的帖子
请教陈版,如果外币借款合同规定到期以人民币质押的定期存单归还借款本(且到期时公司也会同时结算借款及定期存款),期末报表上是否可以将货币资金下定期存款,与短期借款的外币借款net off?

chenyiwei 回复 accountnow 的帖子
我理解不能。该人民币定期存款是外币借款的担保物,类似偿债基金,而金融负债的担保物或者偿债基金是不能与金融负债抵销列报的。

陈版您好,我现在遇到一个略有不同的人民币掉期的情况,特向您请教,公司用人民币即期兑换美元,美元定期存款,到期后本息按约定汇率兑换回人民币,这种产品应该怎样理解和账务处理,企业提供的资料有美元定期存款确认书,感谢陈版主

chenyiwei点评发表于 2016-8-4
可以理解为美元定期存款+远期外汇合约两者组合。虽然最终以人民币表示的收益是锁定的,但只有持有至到期才能获得该预定收益。因此不能简单地将其作为一项人民币定期存款来处理。

陈版,再请教您一个问题,远期外汇的公允价值应如何选择时间的问题,例如1月20日购买的6个月远期外汇合约,在6月30日时,是选择6月30日时1个月的远期外率(远期最靠近),还是选择6月20日的1个月远期汇率来计算,谢谢陈版赐教
chenyiwei点评
使用资产负债表日(0630)的一个月远期汇率。不能用6月20日的一个月汇率。
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